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Bilingualism and the Theory of Mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and perspectives that are different from one's own. This capability is fundamental to human interactions, influencing how we navigate social relationships and empathize with others. Bilingualism, the ability to use two languages, appears to enhance this crucial aspect of human cognition, creating a deeper understanding of the mental states of others.

Research suggests that bilingual individuals often develop a sharper theory of mind. The act of switching between two languages creates a heightened awareness of the listener’s language preferences, which promotes an advanced ability to perceive and consider others' thoughts and feelings. For instance, a bilingual child must choose which language to speak with which family member or friend, depending on their language abilities and preferences. This constant decision-making process enhances their perspective-taking abilities, a core component of the theory of mind. As bilinguals navigate their multilingual environments, they continuously practice switching perspectives, which sharpens their empathetic skills and ability to understand and predict others' behavior based on their mental states.

Furthermore, the benefits of bilingualism on the theory of mind are observed from an early age. Studies show that bilingual children can outperform monolingual peers in tasks that require understanding of false beliefs or deception. This suggests that bilingualism provides cognitive advantages that go beyond mere language skills, extending into broader social cognition. These children are better equipped to recognize that just because they know something, it does not mean someone else holds the same knowledge. This separation of self from others in understanding knowledge states is a sophisticated aspect of theory of mind that seems to be enhanced in those who are bilingual.

However, the benefits of bilingualism on theory of mind are not merely confined to childhood. Continuing into adulthood, bilinguals often maintain superior theory of mind skills. In multicultural and multilingual settings, adults frequently encounter diverse social norms and communication styles. The necessity to function effectively in such environments could explain the sustained enhancement of theory of mind in bilingual adults. They must constantly interpret and navigate complex social cues and differing perspectives, skills that are underpinned by a robust theory of mind.

The interaction between bilingualism and theory of mind also has significant implications for social relationships and emotional intelligence. Bilingual individuals, with their advanced theory of mind, often show greater empathy and understanding in their interactions. This enhanced ability to comprehend and relate to the emotions and thoughts of others can lead to more successful social interactions and deeper relationships. Moreover, this enhanced emotional intelligence supports conflict resolution and fosters a greater sensitivity to cultural and linguistic nuances within diverse communities.

In conclusion, the relationship between bilingualism and the theory of mind illuminates how language use extends into critical areas of human cognitive and social functioning. By facilitating more frequent and nuanced perspective-taking, bilingualism enriches theory of mind abilities, enhancing interpersonal understanding across all stages of life. This relationship underscores the profound impact of bilingualism not just on language processing, but on broader cognitive abilities that shape how we interact with the world and understand others within it. Recognizing and nurturing bilingual abilities, therefore, can be seen as an investment in cognitive and social skills that are crucial in our increasingly interconnected world.


✦Goetz, P. J. (2003). The effects of bilingualism on theory of mind development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6(1), 1–15.

✦Navarro, E., & Conway, A. R. (2021). Adult bilinguals outperform monolinguals in theory of mind. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74(11), 1841-1851.

✦Rubio-Fernández P. (2017). Why are bilinguals better than monolinguals at false-belief tasks?. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 24(3), 987–998.


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